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Delta Farm Press
by Jarrod Hardke, Rice Extension Agronomist - July 30, 2021
“Here I am in this dang bed, and who’s gonna feed them hogs?”
If you’ve been in the field this week then you’ve been cooking. More conversations
have turned to debating whether it’s better to be out in the morning in the higher
humidity and heavy dew or later afternoon when it’s drier but hotter. Opinions vary,
but either way it’s hot.
It does appear that relief is on the way this weekend. Temperatures are expected
to drop below normal beginning Sunday and stay somewhat mild through the week. As
we struggle to stay caught up on irrigation efforts, this will be a welcome relief.
Some rainfall is expected on Sunday but amounts and locations still look up in the
air. May everyone get just what they need!
Difficulty keeping fields flooded and early season weather making herbicide applications
difficult are finally showing through in the form of weed escapes. Grass is beginning
to make it out of the canopy in areas that seemed pretty clean throughout much of
the year so far. Often the pressure looks worse than it really is at this point as
large tillering grass makes populations looker thicker. Certainly, there will be
lodging concerns in those areas of the field come harvest time.
A major note for this week is that, due to rising numbers of COVID cases, the decision
has been made to CANCEL the Rice Field Day at Stuttgart on Aug. 6 and the Rice College at Pine Tree on Aug.
12. If you paid a registration fee for Rice College, it will be refunded.
We’re disappointed not to have these events, but the safety of attendees comes first.
In their place, we plan to video the content from these events and make them available
online at a later date. It’s not a perfect substitute for in-person, in-the-field
events, but we’ll try to make them as close as we can.
Fig. 1. NOAA 7-day Precipitation Forecast.
Nick Bateman, Gus Lorenz, and Ben Thrash
The good news is we were successful in getting a crisis exemption for the Intrepid
2F for use in rice to control armyworms. The specific exemption is still under review
at EPA and it may be another month before they make a final decision, but as of July
28th we are legal to spray in Arkansas. If something changes, we will let everyone know
immediately. We have observed great efficacy with 4 oz. Some highlights for the
exemption are listed below.
Intrepid 2F Crisis Exemption Highlights:
Some of the calls we are getting on armyworms currently are for headed rice. Once
rice is headed we are still concerned about defoliation, especially if it exceeds
20%. This isn’t common to see in headed rice, however it can happen. One thing to
keep an eye out for is if armyworms are moving on to the panicle. We have documented
them feeding on blooms and in some cases seed, which can lead to a reduction in yield.
If this is observed, treatment may be warranted. Keep in mind that armyworms on
panicles are very exposed, and we would expect to do a better job with lambda-cyhalothrin
(Warrior II, Lambda-Cy, etc.) than when armyworms are down in the canopy.
Rice Stink Bugs
With all of the armyworm issues going on in rice, we haven’t talked much about rice
stink bugs. In some places in the state, folks are on their second and third applications.
Most of these situations are because they are the only headed rice around and keep
getting reinfested. We are getting questions in a lot of these cases on whether or
not we should swap to Tenchu and stop spraying lambda. We have made several collections
from these locations over the past week and are not seeing issues with lambda yet.
A sign of control failure is having nymphs following an application, if it is just
adults, then it is most likely a reinfestation. Please contact us if you feel you
are not getting adequate control with lambda so we can conduct some bioassays.
Acephate Use in Rice – The Bad News
The last thing we want to cover is the use of acephate in rice. This is an illegal
application and runs the risk of jeopardizing the rice industry as a whole. We have
gotten a few questions about using acephate for both fall armyworm and rice stink
bug control. Once again, this is highly off label. Acephate is easily detected in
grain even at drift rates. Our work has shown that a direct application or drift
rates lead to levels that are high enough to be rejected at foreign ports. Please do not use acephate in rice.
Tommy Butts, Jason Norsworthy, and Tom Barber
Smartweed species (Persicaria spp.) have been reported as important weeds to manage in Midsouth rice acres (Norsworthy
et al., 2013). Acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides have become the
go-to options for successfully managing these species postemergence in rice (Barber
et al., 2021). The heavy reliance on ALS-inhibitor chemistries for smartweed control
in rice resulted in a population of Pennsylvania smartweed [Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gomez] from southeast Missouri being previously confirmed ALS-inhibitor-resistant
(Varanasi et al., 2018). No such resistance has been confirmed in Arkansas; however,
recent suspicions and reports of suspected ALS-inhibitor-resistant smartweed have
begun to emerge. As a result, the objective of this research was to perform a dose
response experiment on a suspected ALS-inhibitor-resistant (Jackson County, AR) and
susceptible (Lonoke County, AR) Pennsylvania smartweed population.
Greenhouse dose response experiments were conducted in the spring and summer of 2021
at the Lonoke Extension Center located near Lonoke, AR to assess if ALS-inhibitor-resistant
Pennsylvania smartweed was present within the state. Two Pennsylvania smartweed populations
(one suspected resistant population from Jackson County, AR, and one susceptible population
from Lonoke County, AR) were subjected to various rates (0.25x, 0.5x, 1x, 2x, 4x,
and 8x of a label rate) of two ALS-inhibiting herbicides [bispyribac-sodium (Regiment)
and halosulfuron + prosulfuron (Gambit)]. The 1x label rates used for Regiment and
Gambit were 0.5 and 2 oz/ac, respectively, and appropriate adjuvants were included
in each treatment as indicated by the herbicide labels. Treatments were sprayed using
a single-nozzle research track sprayer (DeVries Manufacturing) calibrated to deliver
10 gallons/ac using an XR110015 EVS nozzle. A minimum of 3 replications (plants)
were evaluated per run and 2 separate experimental runs were conducted. At 28 days
after treatment, plants were harvested and weighed for aboveground biomass measurements.
Biomass data were standardized compared to the nontreated control and analyzed using
the dose response package (drc) in R v4.0.3 (Ritz et al., 2015). Three parameter
log-logistic regression curves were fit to the data with maximum values fixed at 100.
Results of the greenhouse dose response study indicate the Jackson County, AR Pennsylvania
smartweed population to be between 5 and 10-fold resistant based on the estimated
dose to reduce biomass by 50% (ED50) and between 38 and 60-fold resistant to reduce biomass by 90% (ED90) for both Gambit and Regiment (Table 1). Dose response curve figures for both Gambit (Fig. 1) and Regiment (Fig. 2) illustrate the reduced control observed with each ALS-inhibiting herbicide on the
Jackson County population compared to the Lonoke County susceptible. This is also
demonstrated in the images taken from the greenhouse experiment for the resistant
(Fig. 3) and susceptible (Fig. 4) populations at 28 days following the application. To successfully control the Jackson
County Pennsylvania smartweed population (reduce biomass 90%), it would require a
34.6 and 24.4 oz/ac rate of Gambit and Regiment, respectively, which is approximately
17 and 48 times more than labeled rates of each herbicide, respectively (Table 1).
This research confirms the existence of ALS-inhibitor-resistant Pennsylvania smartweed
within Arkansas. Additionally, as the Jackson County population was confirmed resistant
to both Regiment and Gambit, this demonstrates the resistance is present across different
chemical families within the ALS-inhibitor site-of-action. This can be extremely
problematic for rice producers within the state as it effectively removes an entire
site-of-action available for the control of Pennsylvania smartweed. Remaining options
would include Basagran at 2 pt/ac, propanil at 4 qt/ac, and Aim at 1.25 fl oz/ac.
However, as all of these are contact herbicides, adequate coverage and applying when
smartweed is small (~4 inches in height) is a must for successful control. Sequential
applications of these herbicides will also often be required for complete control.
If you have smartweed or other problematic weed concerns in your field crops, please
don’t hesitate to get a hold of us. Good luck out there!
Fig. 1. Dose response curves for a suspected resistant and susceptible Pennsylvania
smartweed population following an application of Gambit (halosulfuron + prosulfuron)
herbicide. The 1x label rate of Gambit was 2 oz/ac.
Fig. 2. Dose response curves for a suspected resistant and susceptible Pennsylvania
smartweed population following an application of Regiment (bispyribac-sodium) herbicide.
The 1x label rate of Regiment was 0.5 oz/ac.
Fig. 3. Dose response of suspected ALS-inhibitor resistant smartweed from Jackson
County, AR 28 days after treatment of bispyribac-sodium (Regiment) and halosulfuron
+ prosulfuron (Gambit). The 1x rate for Regiment and Gambit was 0.5 and 2 oz/ac,
Fig. 4. Dose response of susceptible smartweed from Lonoke County, AR 28 days after
treatment of bispyribac-sodium (Regiment) and halosulfuron + prosulfuron (Gambit).
The 1x rate for Regiment and Gambit was 0.5 and 2 oz/ac, respectively.
Table 1. Estimated herbicide doses required to achieve 50% (ED50) and 90% (ED90) Pennsylvania smartweed biomass reduction.
Barber, L.T., Butts, T.R., Boyd, J.W., Cunningham, K., Selden, G., Norsworthy, J.K.,
Burgos, N.R., Bertucci, M., 2021. MP44: Recommended chemicals for weed and brush control.
University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service,
Little Rock, AR.
Norsworthy, J.K., Bond, J., Scott, R.C., 2013. Weed management practices and needs
in Arkansas and Mississippi rice. Weed Technology 27, 623–630. https://doi.org/10.1614/WT-D-12-00172.1
Ritz, C., Baty, F., Streibig, J.C., Gerhard, D., 2015. Dose-response analysis using
R. PLoS One 10, e0146021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146021
Varanasi, V.K., Norsworthy, J.K., Brabham, C., Scott, R.C., 2018. Characterization
of acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance in Pennsylvania smartweed (Persicaria pensylvanica). Weed Sci 66, 710–714. https://doi.org/10.1017/wsc.2018.44
The big news this week came on Thursday with the announcement of U.S. rice sales to
Iraq. This pushed nearby futures up to $13.85 at one point in Thursday’s trading.
September rice futures followed the other CBOT grains lower in early trading Friday.
However, the contract remains in an up-trending channel that’s been in place since
CME September ’21 Rice Futures
Thursday’s Export Sales report included activity for the week ending July 22. As the 20/21 marketing year
winds down, sales were low volume which is not unusual. Long-grain rough rice sales
were 6,500 tons (all to Mexico) and long-grain milled sales dipped to a marketing
year low of 1,429 tons.
There’s one (1) week and 2 days of export sales left to report in the old crop marketing
year. At this point long-grain rough rice sales are up 27% from last year. Sales
of 120,150 tons to Brazil have helped. But the largest year-on-year increase in rough
rice business has been to Venezuela with sales up 490%. Sales to Mexico and Nicaragua
are both up 21% and 27% respectively from last year levels. Rough rice sales have
been the bright spot in trade as milled sales are 26% behind last year. Total long-grain
sales are 5% ahead of last year for the week ending July 22nd.
The next USDA supply/demand and Crop Production reports will be released on August 12th. Also, FSA is expected to release its first report of the year on certified crop
acres. Following the early June flooding in south Arkansas, questions remain regarding
failed acres on a number of crops, including rice. Ideas that some rice acreage was
lost may be part of the fuel behind the futures rally seen since July 12th. Certainly the anticipation of sales to Iraq was key as well.
Shot in the Arm for the Industry: 120,000 Tons Sold to Iraq
Sarah Moran, USA Rice. Sales of 80,000 tons of U.S. rice to Iraq have just been announced by ADM (subject
to letter of credit approval), and an additional 40,000 tons was sold by Supreme Rice,
also pending letter of credit approval. They are the first sales to Iraq in two years,
arriving at the Umm Qasr port in October and November.
Earlier this month, USA Rice signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with Iraq’s
new purchasing entity, Al Awees, to provide certainty to a top U.S. rice export market.
“This MOU, which builds upon the initial MOU between the U.S. and Iraqi governments,
calls for purchases of 200,000 tons of U.S. rice annually,” said Bobby Hanks, USA
Rice Chair. “It took a bit of time for us all to understand this new system in Iraq,
but now we are well positioned to provide Iraq with high quality U.S. rice, which
Iraqi citizens appreciate.”
Preceding this new MOU, seven Senators and twelve Congressmen wrote to the U.S Ambassador
in Iraq, Matthew Tueller, requesting urgent attention to the recent changes in procurement
and highlighting the importance of the Iraqi market to many of their constituents.
Ambassador Tueller swiftly conveyed these concerns directly with Iraq Prime Minister
Kadhimi and Minister of Trade Al-Jabouri.
“We greatly appreciate Ambassador Tueller’s efforts and would also like to especially
thank Senator John Boozman and Congressmen Rick Crawford, Bennie Thompson, and Clay
Higgins for leading efforts to find a workable solution for U.S. rice farmers and
the industry,” continued Hanks. “I’d also like to thank my own representatives, including
Senators Cassidy and Kennedy, for their efforts here in helping Louisiana farmers.”
Iraq has been a top market for U.S. rice for decades, providing up to 150,000 metric
tons in recent years. For the past two years, Iraq has not imported any U.S rice
amid drastic revenue shortages, given that crude oil exports account for 90% of Iraq’s
revenue and the low prices of oil in 2020.
Check out these podcast episodes by following the link or by listening to them on
Arkansas Row Crops Radio wherever you listen to podcasts.
Rice & Advice, Ep. 05: Rice Fungicide Timing & Decision-Making (7/30/21)
Weeds AR Wild, Ep. 20: Drift and New Weed Control Technologies Update (7/21/21) –
discussion of Rogue herbicide at 13:00 mark
The DD50 Rice Management Program is live and ready for fields to be enrolled for the
2021 season. All log-in and producer information has been retained from the 2020
season, so if you used the program last year you can log in just as you did last year.
Log in and enroll fields here: https://dd50.uada.edu.
The Arkansas Rice Advisor site https://riceadvisor.uada.edu functions like an app on your mobile device. There you can readily access the DD50
program, rice seeding rate calculator, drill calibration, fertilizer and N rate calculators,
publications, and more.
Arkansas Rice Updates are published periodically to provide timely information and
recommendations for rice production in Arkansas. If you would like to be added to
this email list, please send your request to email@example.com.
This information will also be posted to the Arkansas Row Crops blog (http://www.arkansas-crops.com/) where additional information from Extension specialists can be found.
More information on rice production, including access to all publications and reports,
can be found at http://www.uaex.uada.edu/rice.
We sincerely appreciate the support for this publication provided by the rice farmers
of Arkansas and administered by the Arkansas Rice Research and Promotion Board.
The authors greatly appreciate the feedback and contributions of all growers, county
agents, consultants, and rice industry stakeholders.