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Delta Farm Press
by Jarrod Hardke, Rice Extension Agronomist - July 15, 2022
“We’re having a heat wave, a tropical heat wave…”
Everybody pleading with the forecast for rain these days:
I saw a graphic today that showed the past month has been the driest of the past 130
years. So, I don’t think we’re overstating just how dry it is.
The long-term forecast alluded to last week appears to be happening. I very much
want something positive to report. But, if you’re tired of my doom and gloom, skip
the rest of this section and jump below to other sections!
The next 10 days look like the hottest of the year so far, with a string of 100-degree
days and nighttime lows staying at or above 75 degrees. I do not want to have rice
heading next week, but we’re making our way into more and more fields hitting that
Once we begin to top 100 degrees during the day, I am concerned with it affecting
pollination. Most problematic though, are the nighttime lows. When we have 5+ consecutive
nights of 75 or greater, it can impact pollination during flowering as well as our
quality during grain fill. Depending on your exact location and weather source, the
next 10 nights are not expected to fall below 75. Some nights may not fall below
Keeping cool water moving through the field could help, but only minimally. Cold well water isn’t going to really change the microclimate
much above the water line to help the rice heads. But, it could help to reduce the
overall stress on the plant from the high temperatures. I know we’re all doing all
we can to irrigate all we can, so there’s little likelihood of keeping water running
somewhere when we could move that water source to another field that needs it, but
it is something to consider if you had the capacity to do it.
Let us know if we can help.
New on Arkansas Row Crops Radio this week:
Weeds AR Wild Series, S2 Ep 20: 2022 Field Days and Late Season Weed Control Advice
Fig. 1. NOAA 7-day precipitation forecast.
The biological herbicide LockDown will be available beginning the second week of July
for those concerned about Northern jointvetch management. We’re including this notification
because supply will be limited and we can direct you to the appropriate contact person
“It’s called revenge, Lunch Lady,” said the garlic bread.
Questions abound regarding late clean-up herbicide applications. “What should I spray
to clean up barnyardgrass or sedges?” In most instances these weeds are even heading
at this point. All we’re talking about is revenge now. You may or may not gain any
real control, and any yield impacts have likely already occurred. Additionally, we
may now expose these weeds to what will be a sub-lethal dose that could make these
weeds more difficult to control in future seasons. Applying most herbicides after
rice goes reproductive could lead to rice injury including yield loss or malformed
kernels. In most cases, keep it in the jug and farm on.
Nick Bateman and Ben Thrash
We have received several calls this week on fields starting to head and having over-threshold
levels of rice stink bugs (RSB) in them. To be honest we were expecting the numbers
to be higher than what is being reported. Based on what we saw in wheat a few months
ago and what we have been seeing on native grasses for the past several weeks, we
are probably lucky the numbers are as low as they are. Most of the reports we have
received have been 10-15 RSB per 10 sweeps with the occasional 25-30 per 10 sweeps.
Most of this is probably due to the amount of barnyardgrass heading right now. RSB
seems to prefer it over rice. Once it dries down though, rice will be the only game
in town. The way things are shaping up now, hopefully by the time the barnyardgrass
does dry down a large percentage of our rice will be headed and will dilute the RSB
populations to manageable numbers.
For the past couple of years, we have conducted assays on RSB to test for resistance
to lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior II, Lambda-Cy, etc.). Our assays so far this year
have shown between 65% and 75% control with a 1X rate of lambda, which is down from
last year (90-100%). Earlier this week we sampled some large block studies comparing
Warrior II and Tenchu. At 3 days after application the Warrior II plots averaged
a little over 60% control and Tenchu was greater than 90%. No nymphs were present
at the time of application or when we sampled this week, so its hard to say if it’s
just poor control with the Warrior II or if there was some reinfestation. There is
a very short residual with lambda. Odds are it was both.
So, what does that mean for management of RSB this year? Lambda still has a fit in many cases. Keep in mind though, you cannot expect more
than 60% control and, in many cases, late in the season during 2021 it was much lower.
If you do spray lambda our suggestion is to scout those fields within 3-4 days after
application to determine the level of control you got. If nymphs are present when
you spray and also 3-4 days after application, then that is a sign of poor control.
With that being said, if it is all adults that could mean you got reinfested.
What are our other options? Right now, the only non-pyrethroid options available are Malathion and Tenchu. Carbaryl
is also labeled, however many foreign ports test for it so we do not recommend spraying
it. As far as Malathion goes, it has looked good in our plots over the past several
years, however we received multiple reports last year of folks not happy with it.
It has a shorter residual than lambda but seems to have more consistent knockdown
than lambda. In our plots it has taken 7-10 days to see nymphs start showing up behind
a Malathion application. Tenchu is another option, however it will be difficult to
find. In the past we haven’t seen a big difference between Tenchu and lambda besides
price. The past two years however, it has looked much better than lambda. Similar
to Malathion it usually takes 7-10 days to see nymphs behind Tenchu applications,
and in some cases, we have gotten much longer control.
Bottom line with either of these products is we can’t afford to spray them twice.
The cost of Malathion is around $10 per acre for 32 oz and Tenchu is $12 for 8 oz.
If we are going to spend that kind of money on RSB our suggestion is to not spray
until we are mainly soft dough. That would put us on the tail end of the second week
of heading into the third week of heading. With that being said, if you are running
20+ RSB per 10 sweeps during flowering and milk you may want to consider an application.
We have done a lot of work looking at spray timing when we reevaluated our threshold,
and we rarely see yield losses from RSB, but peck is extremely consistent. If you
can ride those populations through the flowering and milk stage and make one application
of a product like Tenchu at soft dough, most of the time that will get us to the finish
Let us know if you have any questions or need anything. We will update everyone weekly
with what our assays and field studies are showing, and if anything new is available
for RSB. Also please contact us if you see a failure with lambda so we can make a
collection to conduct resistance assays.
Fig. 2. Rice Stink Bug Efficacy in 2021 field trial with selected insecticides, 3
days after treatment.
Fig. 3. Rice Stink Bug Efficacy in 2021 field trial with selected insecticides, 13
days after treatment.
Sheath blight: Just two weeks from artificial inoculation, sheath blight in our experimental plots
has moved up close to 50% of the canopy height in CL 163 (Fig. 4). This is indicative that the weather is warm and humid enough to favor the disease
to progress. Continue scouting for timely action. Morning dew on leaves makes the
micro-environment favorable to sheath blight and blast. Fig. 5 is a picture taken in our experimental field taken at 10:30 a.m yesterday.
Threshold for fungicide application against sheath blight: 35% or more positive stops for VS (very susceptible) and S (susceptible) rice and
50% positive stops for MS (moderately susceptible) rice.
Blast: In 2022, we received the first report of leaf blast on Titan from Arkansas County.
Neck and panicle blast, if severe, can cause near 100 percent grain yield loss. If
leaf blast is detected early in the season on a susceptible variety, neck blast is
often predicted and at least a one-time protective fungicide is justified. However,
the absence of or inability to detect leaf blast on a susceptible variety in a field
with a history of blast does not guarantee that neck and/or panicle blast won’t show
Note that the pathogen spores that can cause blast can be carried by wind and makes blast
Protective Actions for fields with a history planted with blast susceptible rice:
Increase flood depth to at least 4” depth. Leaf blast often is suppressed by adequate flood depth.
Keep the water of at least 4” deep permanent until time to drain for harvest.
If it is a susceptible row rice or water is limited to raise flood depth, up to three
times fungicide application may be required depending on the extent of leaf damage
and the factors that favor blast. Continue scouting for leaf blast. No threshold has been established for blast since fungicides should be protective.
Remember late season blast is managed with strobilurin fungicides containing Azoxystrobin
Fig. 4. Active sheath blight progress in CL163.
Fig. 5. Morning dew on leaves makes the micro-environment favorable to sheath blight
USDA released its monthly supply/demand report on Tuesday (July 12). This month’s
outlook for 2022/23 U.S. long-grain is for larger total supply, higher domestic use,
lower exports, and larger ending stocks.
Total supply was increased as larger beginning stocks and imports more than offset
lower production. Beginning stocks are 2.5 million cwt. higher this month on increased
old crop (21/22) imports. Long-grain production for the 2022 crop was reduced 1.9
million cwt to 139 million on lower acreage. The lower production estimate came as
a result of 37,000 fewer harvested acres. The NASS June Acreage survey provided the basis for planted and harvested acreage adjustments this month.
Long-grain imports were raised 3 million this month to a record 33.0 million cwt.
Domestic and residual use was raised 2 million to 115.0 million cwt. Exports were
reduced 1.0 million cwt to 60.0 million on lower production. Long-grain exports would
be the lowest since 1996. Projected 2022/23 ending stocks increased 2.6 million to
21.9 million cwt; down 12 percent from last year.
Table 1. U.S. Long-Grain Rice, Supply and Demand.
Domestic & Residual Use
Average Farm Price ($/cwt.)
Average Farm Price ($/bu.)
The 22/23 season-average farm price (SAFP) for long-grain is unchanged at a record
$15.50 per cwt or $6.98 per bushel. Of note, the 21/22 season-average farm price was reduced 10 cents per cwt. to $13.70
or $6.17 per bushel. This would result in a Price Loss Coverage (PLC) payment of
13 cents per bushel. USDA will announce the final 21/22 season average price in October.
Following Tuesday’s report, September rice futures closed 8 ½ cents lower at $16.45.
However, there was heavy, across-the-board selling in commodities and equities Tuesday.
No doubt though, the significant increases in old and new crop imports were bearish
to long-grain. The ’21 and ’22 marketing years are projected to see back-to-back
record long-grain imports.
The September contract traded in a sideways range this week, finding support at $16.40
and resistance at $16.60. Trading was noticeably higher Friday (7/15) as the weather
forecasts for the upcoming week calls for a resumption of intense heat and dryness
in the Delta. New crop basis remains firm around eastern Arkansas. Basis for August
to October delivery at mills is 14 cents per bushel under futures. Basis at driers
for early fall delivery is in the range of 20 to 27 cents per bushel under futures.
The chart below includes the red 20-day moving average and green 100-day moving average
lines. Both sit near $16.49. A close above these moving averages to finish the week
would be a supportive technical signal. The September contract hasn’t closed above
the 20-day moving average since June 6th. As mentioned, the near-term weather outlook is also supportive. Watch for a close
above $16.60 to open additional upside.
Fig. 6. CME September 2022 Rough Rice Futures, Daily Chart.
The DD50 Rice Management Program is live and ready for fields to be enrolled for the
2022 season. All log-in and producer information has been retained from the 2021
season, so if you used the program last year you can log in just as you did last year.
Log in and enroll fields on the DD50 website.
The Arkansas Rice Advisor site https://riceadvisor.uada.edu functions like an app on your mobile device. There you can readily access the DD50
program, rice seeding rate calculator, drill calibration, fertilizer and N rate calculators,
publications, and more.
Arkansas Rice Updates are published periodically to provide timely information and
recommendations for rice production in Arkansas. If you would like to be added to
this email list, please send your request to email@example.com.
This information will also be posted to the Arkansas Row Crops blog (http://www.arkansas-crops.com/) where additional information from Extension specialists can be found.
More information on rice production, including access to all publications and reports,
can be found at http://www.uaex.uada.edu/rice.
We sincerely appreciate the support for this publication provided by the rice farmers
of Arkansas and administered by the Arkansas Rice Research and Promotion Board.
The authors greatly appreciate the feedback and contributions of all growers, county
agents, consultants, and rice industry stakeholders.
Rice Extension Agronomist
Extension Weed Scientist
Rice Verification Coordinator
Extension Soil Fertility
Extension Rice Pathologist