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Delta Farm Press
by Jarrod Hardke, Rice Extension Agronomist - June 17, 2022
“In the summertime, when the weather is hot, you can stretch right up and touch the
We’re having a heat wave, a tropical heat wave. Close the door, you’re letting the
bought air out.
So we talked last week about wanting to go fast, but maybe we could slow down just
a little there, Ricky Bobby. The heat is now into overdrive, and while the rice is
moving fast, it’s now impossible to stay caught up to it. A minor cooldown is expected
on Sunday (88!), so you get that while you’re working on Father’s Day, but the majority
of next week is full of 99-101 depending on where you’re standing. But let’s be honest,
at that point what’s a degree here or there?
We are still two weeks away from the 4th of July, but this heat has me already looking toward that date for particular reason.
We have long considered getting a “4th of July rain” – really meaning a rain somewhere in that timeframe – as being make
or break for getting us through the season. Given this early heat and dry conditions,
getting an upcoming rain sometime in the next couple of weeks will be extremely critical
– both for keeping up with rice water and for having water for our other crops.
A bit of good news is that so far, we’re not really hearing anything on disease pressure.
So we’ve got that going for us. Stay hydrated out there and take plenty of breaks
– nothing will get done if you overheat, it’s not worth it. Work through the morning,
take a break during the hottest part of the day, then do some more in the evening.
We all know this, but reminders never hurt.
Let us know if we can help.
New on Arkansas Row Crops Radio this week:
Weeds AR Wild Series, S2 Ep 17: Optimizing Rogue Activity in Rice
Fig. 1. NOAA 7-day precipitation forecast.
A common theme over the past couple of weeks has been calls about delayed phytotoxicity
syndrome (DPS) – sometimes called delayed phytotoxic shock. Ultimately the rice is
sick, and its from our herbicides that are usually safe.
The symptoms of DPS are patchy areas of rice that are dark and stunted with twisted
and/or rolled leaves (onion-leaf). You may also see “fish-hooking” of tillers near
the base of the plant and affected tissue will be very rigid. When conditions get
very severe, the plants feel “crunchy” or stiff and brittle – you can feel it when
you step on them.
Common herbicides such as Bolero, Facet, and Propanil are the main culprits, but others
can be involved. Why? After flooding, when the soil goes anaerobic, fungi alter
the normally safe herbicides and make them toxic to the rice.
The only real solution to getting these areas to recover is to drop the flood. Getting
oxygen back into the soil and to the plant roots is what will alleviate the problem
and allow rice to grow out of it. The more severe the injury, the more you will have
to dry the field up.
There has been nothing to suggest that this affects particular cultivars. While we
don’t do any screening for it – we’ve observed it on hybrids and varieties alike.
Management, soil conditions, and environmental conditions play a role in whether it
shows up and how severely.
Fig. 2. Delayed phytotoxicity syndrome (DPS) from herbicides applied to rice.
Nick Bateman and Ben Thrash
Over the past two weeks we have received multiple phone calls on rice water weevil
(RWW) showing up in large numbers in rice that has just gone to flood. We are seeing
the same thing in our plots at Stuttgart, however not near to level of some the fields
we have walked in the north part of the prairie or in northeast Arkansas this week.
Keep in mind if you have a diamide seed treatment (Fortenza or Dermacor) I would
not spray for weevils; however, if your seed treatment is a noenicitinoid (CruiserMaxx
Rice or NipsIt), odds are you are outside of the 28-35 days after planting window
to get good control of RWW.
When scouting for RWW and trying to decide if an insecticide application is warranted,
there are a few things we need to keep in mind. These are: 1) how long have I been flooded, 2) is there scarring on the newest leaf material,
and 3) are adults present.
How long the permanent flood has been established before RWW move into the field can
determine if we need to spray. From what we have seen the past few years is that
if we have been flooded for 15-21 days or longer before RWW move into the field, then
the yield loss is far less than if they move into the field immediately after flooding.
Leaf scarring from adult RWW does not cause yield loss but is rather an indicator
that we have adult weevils in the field. When scouting for RWW we need to look at
the newest leaf material to determine how recent the feeding occurred. Keep in mind
that leaf scarring does not always correlate with the number of larvae present in
the field. This is why we prefer to look at leaf scars and adults to make a treatment
RWW adults are going to typically move into a rice field as soon as the flood is established.
Once in the field, it only takes the adults 3-7 days to mate and lay eggs. Once
eggs are laid, there aren’t many options left for control. If we see scarring but
no adults present, then an insecticide application at that point will not be beneficial.
If adults are present and easy to find this may warrant a foliar application.
As far as control goes, you only have a few options. If an insecticide is needed,
lambda (Lambda-Cy) is about your only option. As far as a preflood vs postflood timing,
we have seen better control from a preflood standpoint. With that being said, these
are small plot tests that we can flood up in a matter of hours versus days. I would
bet on a field that is going to take multiple days to flood, that most of the insecticide
if not all will be broken down before the flood can be established. As a last resort,
but a very effective treatment for RWW (however not the most economical), fields can
be drained to soil cracking. This will kill the larvae and help protect yield.
If you have any questions feel free to reach out to us.
Jarrod Hardke and Trent Roberts
Much of the rice in the state has now gone to flood, and the majority of remaining
acres will be getting there quickly. A common issue that we see every year as rice
reaches reproductive growth (internode elongation) is potassium (potash) or K deficiency.
When we fertilize and flood rice the rapid vegetative growth and significant increases
in biomass over a relatively short period of time can lead to nutrient imbalances
or deficiencies. The 3-4 weeks after flooding are the time period when K demand is
the highest and we are most likely to see deficiency symptoms appear.
Potassium deficiencies are rarely diagnosed preflood as the plant demand is relatively
low. However, K is required by the rice plant in near equal amounts as nitrogen (N)
and is important for many processes associated with water relations, metabolic functions,
and the plant’s ability to fight disease. Soil testing is the first step in proper
K management. Current K rate recommendations based on soil test K levels are very
reliable and can help identify and prevent K deficiencies before they ever occur.
However, there are some cases where soil tests are not taken, or K was not applied
preplant and K deficiencies can present themselves in both subtle and dramatic fashion.
This year, increased fertilizer prices also led to the use of reduced K-fertilizer
rates, which can increase the chances of observing a K deficiency. Since K is a mobile
plant nutrient the deficiency symptoms in rice will appear on the oldest, lower leaves
first and will be characterized as marginal leaf chlorosis that moves from the tip
of the rice leaf towards the collar. “Hidden hunger” continues to be a real concern.
Hidden hunger for potash is essentially a K nutrient deficiency that does reduce yield,
but goes undiagnosed due to a lack of obvious nutrient deficiency symptoms or mischaracterization
of the deficiency as normal leaf senescence (lower leaf drop) due to lack of sunlight,
etc. Proper identification of K deficiency requires you to push the plant canopy
back and really focus on those lower older leaves much like you would do when scouting
for sheath blight.
In extreme cases (and what we observe in research) is that K deficient rice seems
to be shorter and struggling to really take off after preflood or midseason application
of N then hidden hunger or K deficiency may be occurring. The most common timing
for K deficiency in rice is immediately after midseason N applications.
If K deficiency is identified, 100 lb potash per acre (60 units K2O per acre) is recommended at the first onset of symptoms and yield can be salvaged
all the way until the late-boot growth stage. Timing of K application is critical
with earlier identification of the deficiency and application of K to deficient rice
leading to higher yield potential.
One way to identify potential K deficiencies is with a Y-leaf tissue sample – which
is the leaf blade of the uppermost collared leaf on the rice plant. Fifteen to twenty Y-leaves are required to have enough sample to complete the analysis
and should be collected from the entire field or area of interest. Recent research
on using Y-leaf tissue potassium concentration indicates that >1.6% tissue K is optimal
from green ring through mid-boot. Our goal should be to keep the Y-leaf tissue K
concentrations above 1.6% during this timeframe.
If you are concerned about K deficiency, a tissue test may help identify potential
hidden hunger. Please remember that there is a wide window of opportunity for successful
application of K from preplant to late-boot, but the earlier a potential K deficiency
is identified the larger the return on investment.
Fig. 3. Rice leaves showing potassium deficiency.
A large portion of the rice in the state is now reaching or already at flood and moving
into reproductive growth stages. As a result, it’s important to remember cut-off
timings and season max use rates for herbicide applications. Applications of herbicides
above season use rates or occurring after cut-off dates can result in rice injury
and yield loss. Table 1 provides this information as a quick reference for postemergence
rice herbicides. For additional information regarding max season use rates and cut-off
timings of other herbicides or for other cropping systems, check out the MP566 Application Cut-Off Timings for Common Herbicides and MP567 Max Use Rates per Application and per Season for Common Herbicides. Good luck out there!
Table 1. Rice herbicide cut-off timings and season max use rates.
60-day PHI; ½” IE recommended
8.8 fl oz/ac
No cut-off on label
10 fl oz/ac – Beyond
15 fl oz/ac – Postscript
60-day PHI; green ring recommended
25 fl oz/ac
40-day PHI; green ring recommended
43 fl oz/ac
½” IE; green ring recommended
32 fl oz/ac
60-day PHI ½” IE recommended
5.6 fl oz/ac
12 fl oz/ac
31 fl oz/ac
30 fl oz/ac
12.6 fl oz/ac
6 fl oz/ac
New crop rice futures started the week higher with double digit gains Monday and Tuesday.
On a 9-cent loss, the September contract closed at $16.72 ½ Thursday (6/16). Basis
remains firm with fall delivery bids at mills ranging from 9 to 14 cents per bushel
under September futures. Basis at driers is generally 20 to 27 cents per bushel under
futures for fall ’22 delivery.
Fig. 4. CME September ’22 Rough Rice Futures, Daily Chart.
There were some encouraging findings in this week’s Export Sales report. Long-grain rough rice sales and shipments hit 16-week highs for the week
ending June 9th. Strong sales were noted to Mexico and Panama. Last week’s export volumes were
an encouraging sign the pullback in U.S. prices over the past month may be uncovering
The renewed sales strength is welcome as long-grain rough rice sales are 22% behind
last year’s pace. A year ago, the U.S. had made large volume sales to Brazil and
Venezuela. No sales to Brazil have been made in the current marketing year. By this
point last year, the U.S. had also sold over 271,000 mt of rough rice to Venezuela
compared to just 27,500 tons today. Furthermore, sales to our largest buyer Mexico
are down 17% from last year.
Long-grain milled rice sales were also strong last week, reaching a marketing year
high of 40,853 mt. Of note, sales to Haiti of 22,420 mt were the highest since February
3rd of this year. Marketing year to date, long-grain milled rice sales are running 28%
ahead of last year. However, much of these gains can be attributed to the 120,010
mt sold to Iraq. No further sales to Iraq have been made since November 2021.
With seven (7) reporting weeks left in the 21/22 marketing year, old crop export sales
need to remain strong. In the June WASDE, USDA lowered old crop exports by 1 million
cwt. to 63 million. This equates to a 3.2% decline from the 20/21 marketing year.
As of June 9th, total long-grain sales are running 8% behind last year. Without consistently strong
sales and shipments for the remainder of this marketing year, old crop exports risk
a downward adjustment to 60 million cwt.
Table 2. U.S. Long-Grain Rice, Supply and Demand.
Domestic & Residual
Avg. Farm Price ($/cwt)
Source: USDA, June 2022.
Juneteenth Holiday Trading Hours
Sunday, June 19
No evening trading session.
Monday, June 20 (Juneteeth Observed)
CME Group CLOSED for daytime operations.
Evening trading for grains resumes at 7:00 p.m. CST
Tuesday, June 21
Grains trade normal hours.
The DD50 Rice Management Program is live and ready for fields to be enrolled for the
2022 season. All log-in and producer information has been retained from the 2021
season, so if you used the program last year you can log in just as you did last year.
Log in and enroll fields on the DD50 website.
The Arkansas Rice Advisor site https://riceadvisor.uada.edu functions like an app on your mobile device. There you can readily access the DD50
program, rice seeding rate calculator, drill calibration, fertilizer and N rate calculators,
publications, and more.
Arkansas Rice Updates are published periodically to provide timely information and
recommendations for rice production in Arkansas. If you would like to be added to
this email list, please send your request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
This information will also be posted to the Arkansas Row Crops blog (http://www.arkansas-crops.com/) where additional information from Extension specialists can be found.
More information on rice production, including access to all publications and reports,
can be found at http://www.uaex.uada.edu/rice.
We sincerely appreciate the support for this publication provided by the rice farmers
of Arkansas and administered by the Arkansas Rice Research and Promotion Board.
The authors greatly appreciate the feedback and contributions of all growers, county
agents, consultants, and rice industry stakeholders.
Rice Extension Agronomist
Extension Weed Scientist
Rice Verification Coordinator
Extension Soil Fertility
Extension Rice Pathologist